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Searching for Richard Serra's "Shift" in King City

Posted by Derek Flack / December 10, 2009

Richard Serra ShiftRichard Serra is widely considered to be the most important sculptor of the last half century. The subject of a recent 40-year retrospective at MoMA, he's most famous for his massive Cor-Ten steel sculptures in urban areas throughout the world. Cities including New York, London, San Francisco and Paris (to mention only a few) all feature prominent installations of his work.

And, perhaps surprisingly, so too does King City, a mostly rural area about a half an hour north of Toronto.

An early example of Serra's site-specific landscape work, "Shift" (1970-72) was originally commissioned by a Toronto art-collector named Roger Davidson. And though Serra went on to become an artist of global renown, over the years "Shift" slowly became something of a secret, known only to area locals and art-historians.

Richard Serra ShiftUntil a few weeks ago, I had never heard of the piece. But recent developments related to the sculpture's long-term fate were occasion for "Shift's" return to the attention of the mainstream media. Rumors of the work's inevitable demise had been swirling since Davidson sold the land to a developer (Hickory Hills Investments) around 1980. Although Hickory Hills agreed not to "harm, alter or destroy" the sculpture, they offered no guarantees that they would protect or maintain Serra's work either.

Not only that, despite various attempts by King City council to have the owner of the land designate "Shift" a "cultural landscape" under the Ontario Heritage Act -- a move that would ensure the long-term upkeep and provision of public access to the site -- Hickory Hills steadfastly refused.

The story does, however, have a happy ending. Despite an earlier reticence to pursue such a designation without the owner's consent, on November 30th, council voted 6-1 in favour of granting heritage status to Serra's sculpture.

So, after following the story in the papers and researching other art lovers' journeys to the site, I decided that it was time for me to make the trek myself. Though the heritage designation ensured the long-term existence of "Shift," I was anxious to see it before the first snowfall.

Richard Serra ShiftAs my companion and I headed up highway 400 toward King City, I couldn't help but think of my recent discovery of the work of the Canadian sculptor Gord Smith. How easy it is, I mused, for art of such importance to be forgotten, relegated, as it were, to the dust-heap of history. Thankfully, however, this is unlikely to be the fate of "Shift" (or Smith's work for that matter).

And yet, it's also not a widely known or visited installation. While the sculpture will be preserved, in the absence of consideration and appreciation, even masterworks become meaningless. It would be a profound shame if "Shift" was to become merely a cultural artifact, rather than a "living" and relevant artwork. For ultimately, it's the dialectic between the artistic object and the viewer's experience of it that is crucial -- and not just to a work's success, but to its very status as art.

Locating "Shift" is not as difficult as it once was. With a little bit of direction and access to Google's satellite maps, the site is far from hidden. But, on the other hand, you still need to be a somewhat savvy when making the trip to King City. Having identified a few landmarks, my friend and I parked the car beside a non-descript field and started our journey west from Dufferin St.

Richard Serra ShiftFor the first few hundred metres, it was impossible to be sure if our cartographic efforts had been successful. To make matters worse, recent rains meant that the harvested soy fields were a muddy mess. But, trek on we did, and upon reaching the end of the first field, we finally made it to our destination.

At first glance, "Shift" struck me as a bit of an aesthetic let-down. Even though the field had been tilled, the installation nevertheless appeared to be half-buried. The concrete out of which the sculpture is fashioned is also far from pretty, and its weathered surface shows the wear of its many seasons. But, despite this first impression, when I managed to walk up to and around the piece, something almost magical happened.

Perhaps it was the the beauty of the hazy, late fall day, or the fact that we had built up a sweat trudging in from the road, but after having reached the Serra my mood was suddenly that of awe and content. We had arrived. The air felt almost spring-like, with the damp smell of mud wafting upwards from the field. I no longer cared about the state of my shoes or the struggle that would be the walk back to the car. No, in place of these perfunctory concerns, I was drawn to enjoy and engage fully with the almost 40 year-old structure.

Muddy Shoes"Shift" is challenging in the way that almost all good modern art is. It doesn't reveal its meaning or its beauty quickly. But given the chance to dwell upon it for a while, it's impossible not to acknowledge the seamlessness by which it's incorporated into the landscape. In speaking of his intentions for the installation, Serra reveals that what he "wanted was a dialectic between one's perception of the place in its totality and one's relation to the field as walked. The result is a way of measuring oneself against the indeterminacy of the land."

Though Serra's work has at times been termed monolithic, nothing could be further from the truth here. Not only is the boundary of "Shift" defined by the "maximum distance two people [can] occupy and still keep each other in view," but the structure also emphasizes the natural curvature of the terrain, rising and falling in direct proportion to the land itself. Its scale is thus determined by a sort of parallax effect, whereby the most distant reaches of the sculpture blur with the land.

"Shift" is also a profoundly human structure. The maximum height of each shifting wall is five feet and hence at eye-level. At no point does it ever disregard the viewer or the land. But this human quality also extends beyond the formal elements of the sculpture.

Richard Serra ShiftAs I was preparing to visit the site, I tried to get my hands on as much information about it as possible. In doing so, I came across a wonderful article written by King councillor Cleve Mortelliti in which he recounts his experience of stumbling upon the sculpture as a child. When he first encounters "Shift," Mortelliti and his friend speculate as to its purpose and origin, guessing that it might be a foundation for a building that was never completed or an irrigation system used to regulate water flow through the field.

It's only much later that he discovers that what he came upon that day was actually a work of art. This later realization is, however, surprisingly beside the point. As a ten year-old, he and his friend may not have known exactly what it was that they saw, but they knew it was "man-made," or, in more contemporary parlance, a human construction. And this is what I (and Mortelliti himself) think is the very point of "Shift."

To borrow a phrase from Kant, Serra's sculpture shows purpose without purposiveness. Although it refuses to make a singular or fixed statement, "Shift" still serves as a reminder of the relationship between humans and their surroundings and as a model that illustrates the possibility of our mutual and non-destructive co-existence.

It is a sign that says we were here, and that we hope to leave a trace of our presence.

And thanks to a brave group of King City councillors, these basic but crucial messages will live to be "read" by generations to come.



artlover / December 10, 2009 at 10:01 am
One of the best articles I've read on blogto. Thank you for this.
Susana / December 10, 2009 at 10:21 am
I too read about the developments surrounding "Shift," and I was amazed and delighted to hear that it had been saved. I remember seeing it for the fist time when I was about twenty years old. It blew me away. Somehow it just does that to people.
John / December 10, 2009 at 11:10 am
Great article Derek! Love what you've been blogging about lately!!!
Fig / December 10, 2009 at 11:41 am
Thanks for making the trek and sharing this unique installation with your readers.
Lisa / December 10, 2009 at 12:18 pm
Thank you for this article Derek!
Delighted that this piece will continue to be available to the public to experience. The relationship between humans and their surroundings deserves contemplation and investigation.
Johanna Reynolds / December 10, 2009 at 12:37 pm
Wow Derek!

Fantastic--I had no idea that there was a work by Serra so close to us! Now I want to hop in my car and find it for myself...Thanks for bringing focus to "Shift" for those of us who didn't know anything about it...A thoughtful article--beautifully written!


Anonymous / December 10, 2009 at 12:59 pm
Having read the article, and having looked at the picture, I would like to make note of my own similar art contribution to Canada.
My piece of art will be referred to as "Wandering Concrete Snake"
You will be able to locate it easily. It will be located on your left while driving most 400 series highways. You will see that "Wandering Concrete Snake" travels hundreds of kilometres across Ontario. Be sure to notice the beautiful architectural curve from the base to the top. Another possible name for this fabulous piece of Canadian art could be "Sudden Impact."
See other pieces of my work such as "Useless Concrete Locks" in Newmarket, Holland Landing area.
We will be approaching archeologists, to determine whether these significant concrete structures are indeed man made.
I sincerely hope that this will assist you with the preservation of concrete structures and future concrete monoliths

JM / December 10, 2009 at 01:31 pm
great article, more like these!

keep up the great work
dyyz / December 10, 2009 at 01:51 pm
Easily best article on Blogto I've read. Thanks for doing this piece....better than anything in the globe, post or star Toronto sections in a LOOONNNNNGGGG time.
Shawn Micallef / December 10, 2009 at 04:48 pm
Nice work - made a companion post just now:
Clement Greenberg / December 10, 2009 at 08:38 pm
Wow... an an article on modern art and of the ten comments, only one idiot. Some kind of record. Maybe there's hope after all.
Egerton R / December 11, 2009 at 09:01 am
It is interesting to see in those photos the intellectual debt the Vietnam War Memorial in Washington owes to Serra's work. But to me it still looks like an old concrete wall :) Can I suggest a similar piece on E.B. Cox? It would be fascinating to see any of his work in concrete that might be lurking half-forgotten around the Toronto area.
Egerton R / December 11, 2009 at 09:03 am
Oops - Cox = stone of course.
None of your Business / December 11, 2009 at 04:33 pm
This is private property and your trespassing is putting efforts to conserve the culural heritage landscape over the objections of the property owner in jeopardy. Please stop or they will hold it against municipal council.
Wendy / December 16, 2009 at 02:24 pm
This summer a friend and I attempted the same thing, but after crossing a soybean field we were met with a marsh that blocked our access. Happy to hear you found the correct method of entry :)
christopher / December 25, 2009 at 09:22 am
Fantastic article, thanks for drawing some much needed attention to this amazingly beautiful work of art that was hidden right under my nose. I have been a huge fan of Serra's work and I can't believe I have never heard of this one before.
heidi / February 7, 2010 at 09:24 am
hi - i am a huge fan of RS - and I think it is pretty outstanding that we (Torontonians) have one of his works in our reaches. I have been doing a little research into this piece and have found out that the motion to have it designated under the Heritage Act is being appealed/challenged. I have been trying to find an Institution or foundation that is involved and keep coming up blank….any pointers would be greatly appreciated! Also - started a Facebook page to help create awareness about Shift. SAVING SHIFT.
ThomasEW / April 30, 2014 at 01:10 pm
INteresting ot read - thanks for sharing! I wasn't aware of this installation. Thomas
[f.y.i.: a pin for this piece of art (including a link) is now on this map:
outlining Serra's sculptures in public places world wide]
Josh / May 26, 2014 at 07:16 am
These coordinates are slightly wrong FYI!

EXACT Coordinates: 43.920254, -79.511871
Vee Atkins / May 25, 2015 at 03:15 pm
A small group of us in King, self designated as "Friends of SHIFT," is attempting to generate support for a partnering between the owner of the property and the Municipality.
We are hosting an evening, June 27th, 2015, 6-9:30 PM at the Kingbridge Centre, admission $20 which includes nibbles and cash bar. THe Film " A Shift in the Landscape" by Simone Estrin will be featured. Following the film, a panel of art experts, (McMIchael, HAmilton Art Gallery, the Globe & Mail, The Chicago Art Institute School and the AGO will discuss how to save SHIFT for public appreciation.
We respect the land owner's privacy but do wish to promote conservation of this unique work, and are convinced that a satisfactory agreement could be negotiated to benefit all.

Christopher / September 25, 2015 at 12:27 am
Not a fan of of RS and his work. Way too simple or minimal even when enlarged. I expect more from art. There is too much missing in his art. Space filler.
Marko / September 25, 2015 at 11:11 am
Check out Simone Estrin's ( documentary, A SHIFT IN THE LANDSCAPE (trailer:, regarding this topic.
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